The Second Amendment is one of the most controversial articles of the U.S. Constitution.
Written to protect citizens during a time where the nation had no standing army, the article reads:
"A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed."
The shooting in Newtown, Conn., where 27 people were killed on Friday, has called our right to bear arms into question.
In a nutshell
Is the Newtown shooting a singular event or an indicator of systemic issues? As the Washington Post pointed out,
"Of the 12 deadliest shootings in U.S. history, six have taken place since 2007."
Can gun massacres be prevented, or at least made more rare?
People are shocked, angry, and upset, and no one wants to see something like what happened in Newtown happen again.
So, not surprisingly, much attention is being turned on gun rights. And people are split.
While some want more gun control laws on the books, others think guns aren't the problem and want to preserve Second Amendment rights.
Some are pointing to examples like Australia, where gun-control laws enacted after a 1996 mass shooting are credited with a plunge in gun-related crimes and with stopping gun massacres altogether.
Other voices are saying that factors like America's culture of violence, poor healthcare, lack of widespread spiritual belief, and ultimately the lack of resources for parents dealing with mentally unstable children are the real problems that need to be addressed.
Let's look at America's gun rights and gun control debate, including some of the key solutions and opinions.
Those who want increased gun control basically see weak laws as the key factor in events like shooting rampages. Gun-control activists generally believe in one of these two things, or both:
- Stepping up the enforcement of existing laws.
- Passing new restrictions.
The main organization that advocates for gun control is the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence.
Senator Dianne Feinstein, a Democrat from California, said she would introduce an assault weapons ban bill on the first day in the new session of Congress.
President Obama, in speaking in Newtown on Sunday night, seemed to call for increased gun control:
These tragedies must end. And to end them we must change. We will be told that the causes of such violence are complex, and that is true. No single law – no set of laws – can eliminate evil from the world or prevent every senseless act of violence in our society. But that can't be an excuse for inaction. Surely we can do better than this.
Of course, it can take months or years to craft and pass legislation. And whether a new law would even pass is an open question. We've had the gun control debate many times over. And it's not entirely clear that a majority of Americans want increased gun control.
After the shooting in a movie theater in Aurora, Colo., in July, Feinstein made similar statements, calling for the renewal of an assault weapons ban that had expired. Former President Bill Clinton...
...was, in fact, the one who passed the bill that expired in 2004. Despite the law's major loopholes, it would have banned the gun used by James Holmes in Aurora had it been renewed.
New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg is another politician calling for a ban on assault weapons and more action by Obama:
President Obama hinted that he plans on doing something tangible to prevent gun violence, but what that was exactly isn't clear:
What's an assault weapon?
Basically, there are fully automatic weapons that fire continuously when the trigger is held down. These have been heavily regulated since 1934.
What people mostly refer to when they talk about assault weapons - and about further regulating or banning them - are semi-automatic weapons which reload automatically, but fire only once each time the trigger is pulled.
Congress defined an assault weapons as a firearm with military-type features that are useful in combat situations.
Another approach to regulating assault weapons is to enact a sizable tax on the ammunition these guns use.
The other side: gun rights advocacy
So you've probably heard the phrase "guns don't kill people - people kill people." This sums up the belief of many gun rights activists, who strongly support the right to bear arms provided in the Second Amendment. Some also argue that the country would be safer if more people, not fewer people, carry guns.
Rep. Louie Gohmert of Texas is a voice for gun rights. He said that had the principal - who died trying to stop the shooter - been armed, the Newtown shooting might have ended up differently:
"I wish to God she had an M-4 in her office locked up — so when she heard gunfire, she pulls it out and she didn’t have to lunge heroically with nothing in her hands."
The National Rifle Association is just the main organization that advocates for protecting gun ownership rights and free market sales of firearms.
Some people are changing their minds
Several gun-rights voices seem to be switching sides in the aftermath of what happened in Newtown.
Joe Scarborough, a conservative commentator and former politician who was solidly aligned with the NRA, said that the massacre in Newtown changed his political views:
Senator Joe Manchin of West Virginia - a staunch gun-rights supporter - also said the tragedy had changed his mind.
What others are saying
A message in the memorial to Sandy Hook victims: "Mr. President Please Make Your Legacy To End Gun Violence." (Getty) twitter.com/BuzzFeedAndrew…
— Andrew Kaczynski (@BuzzFeedAndrew) December 17, 2012
More than 155,000 people have signed a White House petition urging the president to introduce new gun-control legislation to Congress.
Many have tweeted their views in the past few days:
Shocked and saddened by what happened today in Connecticut.We have to stop the access to guns in our country.
— Ben Stiller (@RedHourBen) December 14, 2012
Taking away gun rights might be the dumbest thing they can do. People are still going to be crazy, guns or no guns.
— Lindsay (@LindsayBursonn) December 17, 2012
Gun control is our only road to freedom. Freedom from the fear of senselessly losing children. I'm so saddened. WE NEED LAWS NOW.
— Rashida Jones (@iamrashidajones) December 14, 2012
— Leatherneck Teufel (@LeftFighter) December 17, 2012
How much more suffering & loss will it take before we better regulate the sale of arms in our country? Let @nra know how you feel.
— Susan Sarandon (@SusanSarandon) December 14, 2012
I used to be a "gun guy" I'm even a trained gunsmith. But I cant support gun rights any more. Not with a massacre a week. I'm done.
— Pissed off Chris (@mandoskirata) December 14, 2012
Why does a tragedy like 9/11 change everything about air travel, but numerous gun massacres CHANGE NOTHING?
— Justine Bateman (@JustineBateman) December 17, 2012
What kills me is the Hypocrite Hollywood Crowd SCREAMING gun control, yet can't make a movie without hours of assault rifle gun violence!
— Tom Francois (@Tom_Francois) December 17, 2012
And then there are these tweets:
So today some kids at my school made one of those awareness bulletin boards about the shooting. = It had pictures of the guns the guy used-
— Zalandria (@ZalandriaAE) December 17, 2012
This kid in my class just said that to stop school shootings we need to give teachers guns. He actually said that I swear.
— Mark M. (@markmcgeever1) December 17, 2012
So my school was in lock down all day because these kids decided to go on Facebook and say how they were bringing guns and stuff and +
— Lamp (@NiamUgh) December 17, 2012
Lots of people from my school who were troubled, who were "loners", etc. They didn't kill anyone b/c they didn't have access to guns.
— Odessa Paloma Parker (@OdessaPaloma) December 15, 2012
If I had a gun, there were school days where I wanted to kill half my school mates. USA needs to HEAVILY regulate guns.
— Stephen Dunne (@StephenEamonn) December 15, 2012
Here are some ways you can take action:
Images used under Creative Commons licensing.